Implementation Strategy extroverted writing.
Analysis Extra-Intro Transformation Strategies
Combining the three authors, we identify four strategies that change the mood of a sentence.
- Grammatical Mood: Switching between indicative and subjunctive.
- Intensifiers: Integration or removal of adverbs that intensify the meaning of a subsequent adjective.
- Questions: Turn of statements into questions.
- Vocabulary: Usage of words relating particularly to introverted or extroverted language. Before, we can implement these changes, we take a deep dive into the linguistic concepts underlying the strategies.
Linguistic Concepts: (1) Grammatical Mood
Definition: Mood is a feature that expresses modality and subclassifies finite verb forms. It is an inflectional feature of auxiliaries and verbs.
Inflectional mean changing the auxiliary or a verb to account for a different mood. Let us assume that you change a statement in indicative (“I will do this.”) to subjunctive (“I would do this”), then the main verb “will” has been inflected to “would”.
Indicative: a verb in indicative states that something happens, has happened or will happen, without adding any attitude of the speaker. For instance: “I speak English and French.”, “The celebration will take place next Friday.” Subjunctive: a verb in subjunctive states either a hypothetical condition, wishes, suggestions or statements. For instance: “If I were you, I’d accept this job.”, “It is essential to you listen to me.” Imperative: Uses imperative to order or ask the addressee to do the action of the verb. For instance: “Wash the dishes.”, “Let’s have a look at what you have done.” Conditional: Used to express actions that would have taken place under some circumstances but they actually did/do not happen. For instance: “ If I had studied more, I would have passed the exam.”, “To drown out their conversation, I turned on the radio.”
Linguistic Concept: (2) Intensifiers
Intensifiers can be divided into two subcategories: amplifiers and downtoners with various subcategories. Amplifiers increase intensity, show precision or express certainty. These are being used in an expanding, rather positive context, meaning that they either maximize or boost statements. Downtoners reduce the strength of an expression or voice doubt. This vagueness can be achieved through approximaters or compromisers. Also, diminishers and minimiziers can be used to reduce the intensity of a statement. Please find examples for each group on the right.
Linguistic Concept: (3) Questions
There is for types of questions: basic question, choice questions, tag questions, and yes-no questions. Choice questions offers choices and asks reader to choose between multiple possibilities (e.g., “Do you want tea or coffee?”); Note: Same exception as above (e.g., “Is your car white or black?”) Basic questions follow an auxiliary verb, then subject, then main verb structure (e.g. Do you like Mary?). Note: A basic question does not have an auxiliary verb, and if the main verb is ‘to be’ in present or past simple then it is treated exceptionally (e.g., ‘Am I wrong’?). Yes-No questions start with auxiliary verb, and therefore have only narrow answering. W-question is a question that starts with a question word such as when, where, why, how. Tag questions are statements followed by a mini-question to ask for confirmation (e.g. “You like coffee, don’t you”?
Linguistic Concepts: (4) Vocabulary
In their article, Schwartz et al. 2013 correlated the psychological profile (MBTI) of 75.000 Facebook users with their tweets, to isolate specific terms that are known to be used more by one type or another. Note: We are well-aware of the fact that MBTI as a psychological measures is often deemed less empirically grounded than psychological classifications in other academic literature. Yet, the definition of the dimension of extraversion/ introversion is very consistent with more accepted concepts such as OCEAN (Zarouali et al. 2020). In order to mask very extroverted terms for introverts (and the reverse), we use hypernymies to give more abstract terms. A hypernymy describes the specificity or abstractness of a word. For example, consider the words car, vehicle, and machine: Car is more specific than vehicle, which is in turn more specific than machine. In other words, vehicle is a hypernym (i.e., a more abstract term) for car, and machine is a hypernym for both car and vehicle.